News

Columns Cover Statute of Repose, Reproductive Rights, Don Paine

In this issue, President Cindy Wyrick and columnist John Day each give different views of the Statute of Repose, and Marlene Eskind Moses's column this month covers a little-known area of reproductive rights, assisted reproductive technology. Don Paine, who died in November, is remembered by editor Suzanne Craig Robertson and columnist Bill Haltom, who also gives tribute to John Smartt. You can also read a "Paine on Procedure" column written by Paine before his death.

read more »

Malicious Prosecution Suit May Not be Based on Dismissal via Settlement, Middle Section Rules

THOMAS R. MEEKS v. CARRIE GASAWAY, ET AL.
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Joseph Napiltonia, Franklin, Tennessee, for the appellant, Thomas R. Meeks.

Dominic Joseph Leonardo, Nashville, Tennessee; Mitchell Todd Hingson, Clarksville, Tennessee, for the appellees, Carrie Gasaway, Edward Farmer, and Gasaway, Long, & Farmer, PLLC; Fletcher Long, Clarksville, Tennessee, Pro Se.

Judge: COTTRELL

A bail bondsman filed suit against an attorney over title to several pieces of land. The suit went to trial before a jury, but the parties settled before a verdict was announced. The attorney subsequently sued the bail bondsman’s attorneys for malicious prosecution and other torts. The defendant attorneys filed a Rule 12.02(6) motion to dismiss, arguing that the parties’ agreement to settle the underlying case negated one of the elements of a malicious prosecution claim, “a final and favorable termination” of the underlying suit in favor of the defendant. The motion also argued that the complaint did not sufficiently allege the elements of the other causes of action. The trial court granted the defendants’ motion to dismiss, finding that the plaintiff attorney had failed to state a claim for relief under any of the causes of action. We affirm the trial court.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

Middle Section Affirms Med Mal Dismissal

CYNTHIA BEARDEN v. GREGORY LANFORD, M. D. AND NEUROLOGICAL SURGEONS, P. C.
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Joe Bednarz, Sr., Joe Bednarz, Jr., Nashville, Tennessee, and Steven R. Walker, Oakland, Tennessee, for the appellant, Cynthia Bearden.

C.J. Gideon, Jr., Heather Piper, Nashville, Tennessee, for the appellees, Gregory Lanford,M.D. and Neurological Surgeons, P.C.

Judge: CLEMENT

In this medical malpractice action, the plaintiff alleged that the defendant, a neurosurgeon, negligently penetrated her spinal cord with a surgical instrument while performing a cervical fusion at two levels of her neck leading to partial paralysis and other neurological problems. She was ultimately diagnosed with a condition called Brown Sequard Syndrome. The issues were tried before a jury; however, several of the claims were dismissed on directed verdict. The remaining claims went to the jury which rendered a verdict on behalf of the defendant-neurosurgeon. The plaintiff raises numerous issues on appeal, the substance of which may be divided into three categories. First, she contends error associated with the directed verdict, the verdict form, and the jury instructions. In this regard she contends, inter alia, that the trial court erred in directing a verdict as to res ipsa loquitur because she presented the testimony of three expert witnesses of the defendant’s specific acts of negligence. The plaintiff also contends the court erred by dismissing all but three of her claims upon a directed verdict. Second, the plaintiff argues she was denied a fair trial due to inappropriate argument and misconduct. Third, she argues a host of errors secondary to evidentiary rulings. Finding no reversible error, we affirm.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

Insurer Avoids Liability by Reliance on Court Order Appointing Child's Guardian, Supreme Court Reversing Court of Appeals

ERIK HOOD v. CASEY JENKINS ET AL.
Court: TN Supreme Court

Attorneys:

Michael S. Kelley (at trial and on appeal) and Briton S. Collins (at trial), Knoxville, Tennessee, for the appellant, The Old Line Life Insurance Company of America.

Bruce T. Hill, Sevierville, Tennessee, for the appellee, Erik Hood.

Judge: WADE

The minor beneficiary of a $100,000 life insurance policy filed suit against his financial guardian and the insurance company after the guardian misappropriated the insurance proceeds. The trial court entered judgments in favor of the minor against both the guardian and the insurance company. On appeal by the insurance company, the Court of Appeals affirmed, holding that the insurance company breached its contractual duties by entrusting the proceeds to the guardian. The insurance company then applied for permission to appeal to this Court, contending that it could not be held liable for the loss to the minor because it had relied upon the validity of a juvenile court order of guardianship. Because the insurance company acted in good faith when it relied upon a facially valid court order establishing a financial guardianship in making payment of the life insurance proceeds, it is not liable for breach of contract. The judgment of the Court of Appeals is, therefore, reversed, and the claim against the insurance company is dismissed.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

Snooze and Lose: Late Addition of Additional Tortfeasor Results in Dismissal of Suit Against Him

KRISTINA MORRIS v. JIMMY PHILLIPS, ET AL.
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Daniel A. Gagliano, Nashville, Tennessee, for the appellant, Rachel Mitchell.

Allen Woods, Nashville, Tennessee, for the appellee, Kristina Morris.

Judge: COTTRELL

A multi-vehicle accident occurred in August 2010. The plaintiff initially named only one of the drivers involved in the accident along with the record owner of the driver’s vehicle. The record owner filed an answer identifying three other drivers/tortfeasors involved in the accident in December 2011, and the driver identified the same three individuals as tortfeasors in his answer that was filed seven months later, in July 2012. The plaintiff did not file an amended complaint adding the individuals identified as defendants until August 2012, which was more than 90 days after the first answer was filed. One of the individuals named as a defendant filed a motion to dismiss, arguing the plaintiff waited too late to add her as a defendant. The trial court denied the motion. The late-added defendant appealed, and we reverse the trial court’s judgment.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

A Divided Supreme Court Overturns Trial Court's TRCP 12 Dismissal of Suit of Injured Patron Against Store that Ousted Drunken Customer

JOLYN CULLUM ET AL. v. JAN MCCOOL ET AL.
With Concurring & Dissenting Opinion
Court: TN Supreme Court

Attorneys:

G. Andrew Rowlett and Behnaz Sulkowski, Nashville, Tennessee, for the appellant, Wal- Mart Stores East, LP.

Amelia C. Roberts, Chattanooga, Tennessee, for the appellees, Jolyn Cullum and Andrew Cullum.

Lynda Motes Hill, Nashville, Tennessee, for the Amicus Curiae, National Federation of Independent Business Small Business Legal Center.

Judge: LEE

The issue presented in this premises liability case is whether a store owes a duty to protect its customer from a visibly intoxicated customer who was ordered to leave the store by store employees. A store patron sued a store for negligence after she was struck and injured in the store’s parking lot by a vehicle driven by another store patron. Store employees had refused to fill the other patron’s medical prescriptions because they believed she was intoxicated; she became belligerent, and store employees ordered her to leave the store knowing that she was alone and would be driving her vehicle. In response to the lawsuit, the store filed a motion to dismiss, contending that it did not have a legal duty to control the intoxicated patron after she left the store. The trial judge granted the store’s motion to dismiss. The Court of Appeals reversed, finding that the store owed the injured patron a duty of care to protect her from the intoxicated patron. Taking the plaintiffs’ allegations as true and drawing all reasonable inferences in her favor, we hold that the foreseeability of harm and the gravity of harm to the injured patron outweighed the burden placed on the store to protect the patron against that harm. Therefore, the store patron’s complaint contains sufficient allegations which, taken as true, establish that the store owed a duty of care to the injured patron. The trial court erred by granting the motion to dismiss.

.PDF Version of Case

HOLDER concurring & dissenting

Comment on this Article

read more »

Public Duty Does Not Save GTLA Action Following MVA

BARBARA A. LYNCH, deceased, by her sister and next of kin, CELINE HAYES, ET AL. v. LOUDON COUNTY, TENNESSEE, ET AL.
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Joseph R. Ford and Ashley Harrison Shudan, Loudon, Tennessee, for the appellants, Barbara A. Lynch, deceased, by her sister and next of kin, Celine Hayes.

Arthur F. Knight, III, and Jonathan Swann Taylor, Knoxville, Tennessee, for the appellee,Loudon County, Tennessee.

Judge: MCCLARTY

In this wrongful death action, the plaintiffs alleged that after the deceased was involved in a single car accident, the investigating officer improperly allowed her to continue driving, resulting in her death when she had another wreck shortly thereafter. In the initial lawsuit, the defendants moved for summary judgment. The trial court found that the public duty doctrine applied and granted the motion. After the plaintiffs appealed, we held that under the public duty doctrine, disputed material evidence existed as to whether the officer assumed a specific duty to protect the deceased but then discontinued his aid and protection to her, thereby leaving her in a worse position than she was in before he intervened. We therefore reversed the summary judgment and remanded the case for further proceedings. Lynch v. Loudon Cnty., No. E2010-02231-COA-R3-CV, 2011 WL 4952778 (Tenn. Ct. App. Oct. 14, 2011). Upon remand the trial court found that the special duty exception did not apply and the public duty doctrine was a complete bar to the plaintiffs’ action. The court additionally concluded that Restatement (2nd) of Torts section 324 was not applicable and even if fault was compared, the fault of the deceased exceeded that of the officer by more than fifty percent. Accordingly, the trial court found that the claims of the plaintiffs must be denied. The plaintiffs again appeal. We affirm.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

UT Medical Group to Appeal $33.5 Million Verdict

UT Medical Group Inc. says it plans to appeal a Memphis jury’s $33.5 million malpractice verdict against the organization that has its leadership considering bankruptcy protection. The Memphis Business Journal reports that case records from Shelby County Circuit Court show that after the verdict, UTMG called for a new trial and requested the $33.5 million verdict be reduced. Circuit Court Judge Robert Childers denied the motion for a new trial but agreed to reduce the award by $1 million.

read more »

Insurers Agree to Settle Meningitis Cases

A major settlement reached with insurance companies will provide “a very significant amount” for victims in a nationwide fungal meningitis outbreak, says bankruptcy trustee Paul D. Moore, who has been handling the cases filed against the New England Compounding Center. Moore announced on Friday that an agreement had been reached with the company's primary insurer. He also said there was an agreement with the insurer for another defendant in a series of civil suits that have been merged before a federal judge in Boston. The settlement is still subject to court approval, though parties on both sides applauded the plan. Read more in The Tennessean.

read more »

UT Medical Group Considering Bankruptcy in Wake of Verdict

UT Medical Group Inc. is considering bankruptcy after a Memphis jury found that delays in performing an urgently needed cesarean section resulted in a baby developing severe brain damage and cerebral palsy, and awarded a $33.5 million verdict against obstetrician Gary Lipscomb and UTMG. Through a statement delivered exclusively to the Memphis Business Journal, UTMG said the case remains subject to review by the appellate courts and settlement negotiations are ongoing. However, the verdict’s unusually high value has compelled the UTMG board to consider seeking protection through bankruptcy court.

read more »

Badly Divided Eastern Section Affirms Med Mal Testimony Limitation

(Headline Corrected From Earlier Post)

IKE J. WHITE, III v. DAVID A. BEEKS, M.D.
With separate concurring opinion and dissenting opinion.
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

H. Franklin Chancey, Cleveland, Tennessee, for the appellant, Ike J. White, III.

Richard A. Smith and Stacy Lynn Archer, Chattanooga, Tennessee, for the appellee, David A. Beeks, M.D.

Judge: FRIERSON

This appeal involves the question of whether the trial court properly limited a medical expert’s testimony at trial regarding the standard of care in an informed consent health care liability action. In the case at bar, the defendant filed a motion in limine seeking to limit the testimony of the plaintiff’s expert at trial regarding risks that should have been disclosed to the plaintiff to only those risks that actually resulted in injury. The trial court granted the motion. A jury trial was held, and the jury found in favor of the defendant. Plaintiff appeals, asserting that the trial court committed reversible error when it restricted the ability of the plaintiff’s medical expert to testify about other known risks. Discerning no error, we affirm.

.PDF Version of Case

SUSANO concurring

SWINEY dissenting

Comment on this Article

read more »

Clinic Seeks Dismissal of Meningitis Claims

In a move that could affect dozens of other cases, lawyers for the Nashville clinic where patients were injected with tainted steroids have filed a motion to dismiss suits filed on behalf of 14 Kentucky residents, The Tennessean reports. The motions, filed Monday in U.S. District Court in Boston, charge that the suits filed on behalf of the Kentucky residents do not meet the pre-notice requirements of Tennessee’s health care liability law. The motion also seeks to dismiss product liability and civil conspiracy charges under the same argument.

read more »

Criminal Charges Considered in Meningitis Case

No criminal charges have been filed so far in the fungal meningitis outbreak that killed more than a dozen in Tennessee. But Michigan's attorney general and Boston's federal prosecutor say they’re now sharing evidence from their separate investigations, NPR reports. A federal grand jury in Boston has been investigating the New England Compounding Center for more than a year now, and the FBI recently made a plea through its website, asking anyone who received a tainted steroid shot to describe where and how they received the injection and what their illnesses have been. The pair spoke about the progress of the case at a press conference yesterday. “It’s a very complex, wide-ranging investigation," U.S. Attorney Carmen Oritz said. "I believe it’s moving very steadily forward. But no charges have been filed, as of yet.”

read more »

Self-Insurers Association Seeking Director

The Tennessee Self-Insurers Association is seeking an executive director. Duties include promoting improvements in workers’ compensation law, acting as a liaison with the state departments of Labor and Insurance, keeping members informed of relevant issues, and managing association operations. Applicants should have an understanding of workers’ compensation law as well as the legislative and regulatory environments in Tennessee. Download a job description. Resumes should be submitted to Board of Directors Chair Gary Eastes.

read more »

State to Receive $12 Million in Pharmaceutical Settlement

Tennessee will receive more than $12 million as part of a multistate and federal settlement agreement resolving allegations that pharmaceutical manufacturer Johnson & Johnson used deceptive marking tactics to promote the sale of two of its drugs, Risperdal and Invega. According to a news release by the State Attorney General’s office, Johnson & Johnson and its subsidiary, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, will pay in excess of $1.2 billion. In addition, Janssen will plead guilty in federal court to a criminal misdemeanor charge of misbranding Risperdal in violation of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

read more »

Erie Insurance and the Horrible Terrible Very Bad Day--TCPA and Bad Faith Findings Upheld in Case Seemingly Destined for Supreme Court Review

JOHN RIAD V. ERIE INSURANCE EXCHANGE
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Suzanne S. Cook, Johnson City, Tennessee, and S. Morris Hadden, Kingsport, Tennessee, for the appellant, Erie Insurance Exchange.

Joshua H. Jenne, Cleveland, Tennessee, for the appellee, John Riad.

Judge: MCCLARTY

This case concerns Erie’s refusal to pay insurance proceeds to Plaintiff, who filed suit, alleging claims of breach of contract, bad faith refusal to pay, and violations of the Tennessee Consumer Protection Act, codified at Tennessee Code Annotated section 47-18-101, et. seq. The case proceeded to jury trial. After denying a myriad of motions and reopening the proof to admit the insurance policy into evidence, the trial court submitted the case to the jury. The jury awarded Plaintiff compensatory and punitive damages and found that Erie’s failure to pay was in bad faith and in violation of the Tennessee Consumer Protection Act. The court assessed the statutory bad faith penalty and awarded treble damages and attorney fees. Erie appeals. We affirm the decision of the trial court.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

'Private' Tree Falling in Road Fails to Create Successful GTLA Claim Against City

SHANNON RALEY, INDIVIDUALLY AND AS NEXT OF KIN OF TIFFANY RALEY, DECEASED v. CITY OF KNOXVILLE
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

James K. Scott, Knoxville, Tennessee, for the appellant, Shannon Raley.

Ronald E. Mills, Deputy Law Director, Knoxville, Tennessee, for the appellee, City of Knoxville.

Judge: FRIERSON

This action presents the question of whether a claim properly may be brought against the City of Knoxville (“the City”) pursuant to the Governmental Tort Liability Act (“GTLA”) under circumstances where a tree located on the real property of a private landowner fell and caused the death of a motorist traveling on a city street. The trial court dismissed the claim, finding that the City maintained immunity pursuant to the GTLA and the public duty doctrine. Plaintiff appeals. We affirm the trial court’s dismissal of the claim.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

Does a Statute Create a Private Cause of Action? Middle Section Says 'Not This Time'

TERESA POWELL HUDSON, INDIVIDUALLY AND AS SURVIVING SPOUSE AND EXECUTRIX OF THE ESTATE OF ROBERT MELVIN HUDSON, DECEASED V. TOWN OF JASPER
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Ronald D. Wells and Stacy Lynn Archer, Chattanooga, Tennessee, for the appellant, Town of Jasper.

Jennifer H. Lawrence and David H. Lawrence, Chattanooga, Tennessee, for the appellee, Teresa Powell Hudson, Individually and as Surviving Spouse and Executrix of the Estate of Robert Melvin Hudson, Deceased.

Judge: CLEMENT

This is a wrongful death action against the Town of Jasper. The surviving spouse of the decedent, who died of complications resulting from a myocardial infarction, alleges that the town was negligent and negligent per se by failing to register its three automated external defibrillators with the emergency communications district dispatch as required by Tennessee Code Annotated §68-140-703 and that such negligence contributed to the decedent’s injuries and death. The town filed a Rule 12.02(6) motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted on the basis the statute did not create a private right of action; the trial court denied the motion to dismiss but granted a Tenn. R. App. P. 9 interlocutory appeal. We have determined there is no express language creating a private right of action in the statute, and, looking to the statutory structure and legislative history of the statute, we have also determined the legislature did not intend to create a private right of action by implication. Therefore, we reverse and remand with instructions to grant the motion to dismiss the complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted and enter judgment accordingly.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

Court Grants Review of New Civil Case

The Tennessee Supreme Court has agreed to hear a civil case regarding an Anderson County employee who was injured at work and raised a claim against the county’s liability coverage provider, Tennessee Risk Management Trust. TRMT filed for summary judgment on the theory that the employee was excluded from uninsured coverage under the coverage agreement with the county. The Raybin Perky Hot List has a summary and forecast of the case.

read more »

Post-nup Can Waive Wrongful Death Proceeds, Per Western Section

Gary Rickman v. Virginia Rickman, et al
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Trenena G. Wilcher and Eric J. Burch, Manchester, Tennessee, for the appellant, Virginia Rickman.

Darren V. Berg, Knoxville, Tennessee, for the appellees, Gary Rickman, William Rickman, Jr., Gary Rickman, Jr., Tony Childers, and Chris Childers.

Judge: STAFFORD

This case concerns whether the widow of a deceased man may share in the wrongful death settlement obtained by his personal representative. We conclude that the postnuptial agreement entered into by the widow prevents her from benefitting from the wrongful death settlement. Affirmed and remanded.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

Deadline Set for Filing Meningitis Claims

A federal judge in Massachusetts has set Jan. 15, 2014, as the deadline for filing claims in the bankruptcy case against the New England Compounding Center. The order, signed by U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Henry Boroff, includes detailed instructions on the information victims or their survivors must provide to have their claims considered. Tennessee attorneys representing victims of the nationwide fungal meningitis outbreak said they were pleased that the order provides additional time to file a claim, The Tennessean reports. They note, however, that the deadline applies only to claims against the center. Claims filed against other entities such as hospitals and clinics are subject to a one-year limit in state law.

read more »

Middle Section Remands Mal Pros Verdict for Improper Procedure Evaluating Punitive Damage Award

JAMES L. MASSINGILLE v. G. WAYNE VANDAGRIFF
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Gerald. L. Ewell, Jr., Tullahoma, Tennessee, for the appellant, G. Wayne Vandagriff.

D. Andrew Saulters, Nashville, Tennessee, for the appellee, James L. Massingille.

Judge: DINKINS

In this malicious prosecution action, the jury awarded the plaintiff compensatory damages and punitive damages. The trial court affirmed the punitive damages award; the court suggested a remittitur of the compensatory damages award, which the plaintiff accepted under protest. The defendant appeals the finding of liability, the award of damages, the admission of evidence, and the procedure followed by the court in affirming the punitive damages award; the plaintiff appeals the remittitur of the compensatory damages award. Finding that the court erred when it failed to follow the appropriate procedures in affirming the punitive damages award, we vacate the award and remand the case for further proceedings; in all other respects the judgment of the trial court is affirmed.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

Claims Commission's Dismissal of Med Mal Case Vacated by Eastern Section

MELISSA BROOKE HALEY, ET AL. v. STATE OF TENNESSEE
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Olen G. Haynes, Sr., Johnson City, Tennessee, for the appellants, Melissa Brooke Haley, personally and for the use and benefit of her daughter, Starla Brooke Joanne Haley.

Joshua R. Walker, Associate General Counsel, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, for the appellee, State of Tennessee.

Judge: MCCLARTY

This is a medical malpractice case. The plaintiff filed a claim with the Division of Claims Administration, as the resident physician alleged to have engaged in negligence was purportedly connected to a University of Tennessee training program at Erlanger Hospital in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The State moved the Commissioner to dismiss the plaintiff’s action for failure to comply with the requirements set out in Tennessee Code Annotated section 29-26-121(a). The Commissioner reluctantly agreed with the State’s position. We hold that the plaintiff complied with section 121(a)’s notice requirement by complying with the claim notice requirements of Tennessee Code Annotated section 9-8-402. We further hold that section 121 does not mandate dismissal with prejudice for noncompliance with its terms, and that the plaintiff’s failure to provide all the items denoted in section 121(a) does not warrant dismissal with prejudice under the facts of this case. We vacate the dismissal order and remand for further proceedings.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

Pharmacy Negligence Case Fails in Light of Missing Causation Proof

KAY F. FRITZ v. CVS CORPORATION D/B/A CVS PHARMACY, INC.
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Kay F. Fritz, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Pro se appellant.

G. Michael Luhowiak, Daniel M. Stefaniuk, and William J. Rieder, Chattanooga, Tennessee, for the appellee, CVS Corporation d/b/a CVS Pharmacy, Inc.

Judge: SWINEY

Kay F. Fritz (“Plaintiff”) sued CVS Corporation d/b/a CVS Pharmacy, Inc. (“Defendant”) alleging that Defendant had improperly filled a prescription for Plaintiff causing Plaintiff damages. Defendant filed a motion for involuntary dismissal or in the alternative for summary judgment. After a hearing, the Trial Court granted Defendant summary judgment after finding that Plaintiff was unable to prove an essential element of her claim, i.e., causation. Plaintiff appeals to this Court. We affirm.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »

If a Tree Falls ...

RONALD D. GRAHAM, ET. AL. V. BRADLEY COUNTY, TENNESSEE
Court: TN Court of Appeals

Attorneys:

Michael E. Jenne, Cleveland, Tennessee, for the appellants, Ronald D. Graham and Winifred Marie Graham.

Thomas E. LeQuire, Cleveland, Tennessee, and Courtney E. Smith, Nashville, Tennessee, for the appellee, Bradley County, Tennessee.

Judge: MCCLARTY

This is a negligence case in which the Grahams were severely injured when the top portion of a tree collapsed, hitting their car while they were driving in Cleveland, Tennessee. Plaintiffs filed suit against the County, alleging that the County’s failure to maintain and inspect its roadways caused the accident. The County alleged that it could not be held liable pursuant to the Tennessee Governmental Tort Liability Act, codified at Tennessee Code Annotated section 29-10-101, et. seq. Following a trial, the trial court dismissed the complaint. The Grahams appeal. We affirm the decision of the trial court.

.PDF Version of Case

Comment on this Article

read more »